Labor Force: All people who at least 16 years old and working or actively looking for work.
Wage: The hourly, weekly, monthly, or yearly pay that a worker receives in exchange for a his or her labor.
Intrinsic Rewards: Nonmonetary reasons for working at a particular job.
Derived Demand: The increased demand for resources, such as labor, that results from consumer demand fro a particular product.
Industrialization: The process of mechanizing all major forms of production.
Capital-Intensive: A condition describing a company, industry, or national economy that depends on machines or capital assets to produce goods.
Labor-Intensive: A term to describe an economy that has a large proportion of labor input relative to capital investment. It is producing goods primarily through animal and human power.
Affirmative Action: A program supported by law requiring U.S. employers, labor unions, and other institutions to eliminate discrimination against women and minorities by increasing hiring promotion training and other opportunities for members of these groups. It is the only effective method of ending workplace discrimination
Quota: The minimum number of new hires to be made through an affirmative action program. A maximum or minimum limit to be achieved in dollars or units of something.
Labor Union: An organization of workers that negotiates with employers for better wages, improved working conditions, and job security. Made up of people who work for a particular company or in a particulat area.
Open Shops: A business where membership in a labor union is not a condition of employment. Workers did not have to join a union.
Closed Shop: A business that hires only labor union members. Workers must first join a union.
Fringe Benefits: A non wage payment that employers make to employees in addition to basic wages.
Seniority: A ranking of employees based on the number of years a worker has been employed by a firm.
Collective Bargaining: The process by which labor union leaders speaking for the members they represent and management representatives meet to negotiate labor contracts.
Mediation: A process for settling disputes in which a neutral third party listens to each side, asks questions and clarifies issues, and proposes a solution.
Arbitration: A process for settling a dispute in which a mutually agreed upon third party listens to each side and makes a settlement decision.
Strike: In which they call for union members to stop working until contract demands are met.
Primary Boycott: An organized effort to stop purchases of a firms products.
Secondary Boycott: A refusal to buy the good or services of any firm that does business with a company whose employees are on strike.
Coordinated Campaigning: Involves the use of picketing as well as boycotts.
Lockout: Occurs when an employer closes a company's doors to striking workers until negotiators reach contract agreement that is satisfactory to management.
Injunction:A court order in a labor dispute that forbids specified acts by individuals or groups.
Minimum Wage: A basic level of income paid to workers.
National Unions: Formed from local unions from different parts of the country.
Seniority: The holding of privileges based on the number of years a worke has been employed a firm.

Development of Unions
1. Reasons for unions to form:
The hoped to improve better working conditions and increase their salary.
2. Craft Unions: Composed of one trade's skilled workers.
ex. The International Union of Brick layers and Allied Craftsmen.
3. Industrial Union: Includes all workers in a union whether they are skilled, semi-skilled, or unskilled.
ex. United Auto workers is an industrial union
4. Knights of Labor: An industrial union that was open to workers from nearly all trades.

Challenges to Labor Unions
1. Employer Opposition:
The management of many companies have opposed the development of unions because increased wages for workers means lower profit for owners.
2. Changes in Employment Patterns: The shift from a manufacturing based economy to a service based economy.
3. Negative Public Opinion: People feel that union demands for higher wages and increased benefits have encouraged companies to move their factories out of the countries which decreases the job opportunities for those in the United States.

Entering the Labor Force

Wages, skills, working conditions, location, intrinsic rewards and market trends are the most important things to consider before entering the labor force.

- Wages
*When an occupation has many potential workers but few available jobs, the wage is low.
*When an occupation has little workers and the demand is high, the wage is high.
*The most important factor in choosing an occupation is the salary or wage.
*Business's only want to hire the people that qualify, skill levels can limit worker supply.
-Working Conditions
*Federal and State laws regulate health and safety concerns.
-Intrinsic Rewards
*Working at a business for your own self-fulfillment.
*Nonmonetary reasons for working at a particulat job.
-Market Trends
*Industries expand to metet increasing needs and ants of consumers, leading to an increase in the need for workers.

Union Tactics

*Informs the public that a strike is in progress
*Arouses, public support
*Discourages nonstrikers from entering the plant.
*Two different types
-Primary Boycott
*Most primary boycotts are organized on a local level
-Secondary Boycott
*You would perform in a secondary boycott if you were refusing to buy something or any goods that a store carried by employees that were on strike.
-Coordinated Campaigning
*The combination of Picketing and Boycotting

Management Responses
-Hiring Replacement Workers

*For any business to oppose a strike, they will hire replacement workers so the business can still be open.
*Workers from the business that is on lockout will not be able to return to work even if the strike ends before the agreement is reached.
*The issue of an injunction is made when a strike threatens the health or safety of the public.

Labor Contract Issues:
Wages & Fringe Benefits-
wages are set by labor contracts and cary according to the type of position being held and for how many years
Working Conditions-Direrable working conditions, a clean and safe work place
Job Security-contracts give greater job security
Union Security-Workers can join the union at no pay. atleast 30 percent of a firms employees must sign a pettition before a union can be obtained
Grevience Procedures-Formal complaints, usually resolved by committees

The Labor Force as of 1995 consisted of:
90% Service and manufacturing
6% Unemployed
2.5% Agriculture
1.5% Armed Forces

The Labor Movement in the U.S. has experienced a period of crisis due to:
1. Employer opposition
2. Changes in employment patterns
3. Negative public opinoin

- The civilian labor force makes up 98% of all people in the U.S. who are working or looking for work.
- By 1900, women working for wages outside the home made up 18% of the labor force.
- Since the 1960's the federal government has passed several anti-discrimination and minimum-wage laws to protect the rights of individual workers.
- In 1965 President Lyndon Johnson began pursuing a policy of affirmative action, or mkaing up patterns of discrimination against women, members of minority groups, and others who were traditionally disadvantaged in the workplace.
- The department of labor soon established a practice of relying on what amounted to quotas, or numerical goals, for hiring and promoting women and minorities.
- Regents of the the University of California v. Bakke (1978) court ruled that a california medical school couldn't reserve a certain # of seats for minority students in an incoming class. That quota violated the civil rights act of 1964.
- In the mid and late 80's owners had almost complete control over both pay scales and the length of the workday.
- The American Federation of Labor organized and began the U.S. labor movement in 1886.
- The AFL mainly included unions of unskilled workers, excluding unions of unskilled workers. In 1914 the A.F.L. had 2,000,000 + members.
- To widen the AFL's membership, John L. Lewis president of the U.M.W. formed the committee of industrial organizations within the AFL in 1935.

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